# 1.1. Spin 1/2 Dimer¶

Let’s solve the following spin 1/2 dimer model (2-site Heisenberg model).

(1.1)$H = J {\bf S}_{0}\cdot{\bf S}_{1}$

The input file (samples/tutorial_1.1/stan1.in) is as follows:

L=2
model = "Spin"
method = "FullDiag"
lattice = "chain"
J = 0.5
2Sz = 0
2S  = 1


It should be noted that the L=2 chain has two sites connected by two bonds with each other, and so we let J=0.5 to simulate the dimer model with $$J=1$$.

You can execute HPhi as follows

HPhi -s stan.in


## 1.1.1. Check the energy¶

Please check whether the energies are given as follows.

$$E_{\rm min}=-3/4$$ (singlet)

$$E_{\rm max}=1/4$$ (triplet)

## 1.1.2. Check S dependence¶

By changing 2S=1 in stan.in, you can treat spin-S dimer (eg. 2S=2 means S=1, see samples/tutorial_1.1/stan2.in). Please check whether the energies are given as follows.

$$E_{\rm min}=-S(S+1)$$

$$E_{\rm max}=S^2$$

## 1.1.3. Add magnetic field H¶

By adding H in stan.in, selecting model as “SpinGC”, and deleting “2Sz=0” you can examine the effects of the magnetic field in the dimer model. An example of the input file (samples/tutorial_1.1/stan3.in) is as follows:

L=2
model = "SpinGC"
method = "FullDiag"
lattice = "chain"
J = 0.5
2S  = 1
H   = 2


Please check whether the ground state becomes polarized state (Sz=1).

## 1.1.4. Try to use Lanczos method¶

By selecting method as “Lanczos” you can perform the Lanczos calculations. An example of the input file (samples/tutorial_1.1/stan4.in) is as follows:

L=2
model = "SpinGC"
method = "Lanczos"
lattice = "chain"
J = 0.5
2S  = 1
H   = 2


Please check the Lanczos method reproduces the energy (energy is output in *output/zvo_energy.dat ).

This is just a pedagogical example. By changing H = 20 (very large magnetic field), please examine what will happen. This calculation may fail! Please think why the Lanczos method fails for large magnetic field.

## 1.1.5. Try to use LOBCG method¶

LOBCG is locally optimal block conjugate gradient method. By selecting method as “CG”, you can perform the LOBCG calculations. An example of the input file (samples/tutorial_1.1/stan5a.in) is as follows:

L=2
model = "SpinGC"
method = "CG"
lattice = "chain"
J = 0.5
2S  = 1
H   = 2


Please check the LOBCG method reproduces the energy (energy is output in *output/zvo_energy.dat ).

This is just a pedagogical example. By changing H = 20 (very large magnetic field), please examine what will happen. In contrast to the Lanczos method, LOBCG will work well ! Please think why the LOBCG method works well for the large magnetic field.

Please also check the excited states can be correctly obtained by using LOBCG method. (Please compare the energies obtained by the full diagonalization.) An example of the input file (samples/tutorial_1.1/stan5b.in) is as follows:

L=2
model = "SpinGC"
method = "CG"
lattice = "chain"
J = 0.5
2S  = 1
H   = 2
exct = 4


Here, exct represents the number of excited states, which are obtained by the LOBCG method.